The Pisa cathedral complex includes the Pisa Cathedral, the Campanile (Leaning Tower), Baptistery, and the Campo Santo. The complex is well known for its remarkable exterior marble ornamentation.
The circular Baptistery was designed by Diotisalvi in 1152. The ground floor has tall blind arcades, the first floor has an arcaded gallery, and the second floor has cusped windows. The statuettes of saints and prophets were added in the mid-thirteenth century, and the dome dates from the fourteenth century. The Baptistery represents a transition from Romanesque to Gothic style.
The Campanile, begun in 1174, was designed by Bonanno. It is often called the "leaning tower" due to subsidence in the foundations. It is a 16-meter-wide cylindrical tower with seven stories plus the bell story, which was added in the mid-fourteenth century.
The Cathedral was begun in 1063 and consecrated in 1118. The original architect was Buschetus and the western extension of the nave was designed by Rainaldus and completed in 1272. The cathedral's plan is a Latin cross. It has a nave with double aisles and transepts with an apse at each end. The elliptical dome over the crossing is from a later date. The exterior is covered with marble revetment and incorporates galleries and blind arcades, giving the structure a sumptuous inlay effect.
The Campo Santo dates from 1278-1283. The cemetery is enclosed by a rectangular loggia of marble with Gothic tracery. Frescoes depicting the triumph of death by the painter Francesco Traini (active 1321-1363) were added later.
Keywords: Italian Romanesque, Pisan style, blind arcades, pilasters, polychrome veneering.