John P. Schooley Jr.
(was created by)
late 10th century through 12th century CE
"At the centre of the city of ChichÃ©n ItzÃ¡ is the Castillo: the Great Pyramid of Kulkulkan. It has a symmetrical ground plan measuring 55 m on each side, covering 3000 m2 and reaching a height of 30 m. Four large stairways climb the pyramid, flanked by string walls at the base of which we see, on the north side, two set of Plumed Serpent's jaws. Each stairway has 91 steps, making 364 in total; the threshold at the entrance of the upper sanctuary represents the 365th day of the solar year. The nine stepped levels bear a meandering relief which probably imitates the coils of the Cosmic Serpent. The upper sanctuary, set back southwards in order to accommodate a ritual area in front of the entrance, has a triple bay whose two columns depict the body of a snake, with its jaws forming at the base at ground level, the body forming the shaft and the tail with its rattlesnake scales raised against the upper frieze, according to a tradition Tula that symbolizes Quetzalcoatl. The vaulted oblong vestibule leads to a 'holy of holies.' Inside two pillars support the roof with lintels made of sapodilla wood. This marks an important innovation in roofing techniques. Other buildings of ChichÃ©n ItzÃ¡ also featured this development. On the three sides that surround the cella, a surrounding vaulted gallery isolated the inner sanctum within the high temple."
-- Steirlin, Henri. (1997). THE MAYA: Palaces and Pyramids of the Rainforest. New York: Tachen, p 188.
Two of the four sides of this imposing structure have been restored.
Keywords: Toltec-Maya Monument, Mayan people, ChichÃ©n ItzÃ¡.
stone and/or rock