2570 BCE Cheops(Khufu); ca. 2530 BCE Chefren (Khafre); ca. 2500 BCE Mycerinus (Menkure) Dynasty IV ca.
"At Giza, there are three separate pyramid complexes, the latest, that of Mykerinos, being the smallest. The oldest of the three, that of Cheops, son of Sneferu, has the largest pyramid, 137 meters (450 feet) high at present and another 10 meters originally. But the pyramid complex of Chefren is the best preserved, with its extraordinary valley temple intact, and, next to it, the noble form of the Sphinx, a recumbent leonine body welded to the portrait-head of the king wearing the royal headdress, perhaps the best-known monument in the world. Directly in front of the Sphinx, to the east, was a temple dedicated to Harmakhis, an aspect of the sun god; arranged around a rectangular court paved in alabaster was a continuous cloister that held twenty-four columns, probably an allusion to the sun's daily journey, and two axial niches, east and west, that marked the journey's axis. The temple was entered from the east by two doors." - Kostof, Spiro. (1995). A History of Architecture. 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. p.76
Keywords: Egypt, Matruh, Pyramids of Giza. Submitted by Paul Young for ARCH 600: History of Ancient and Medieval Architecture.