Three types of simple retaining walls, usually used for heights not exceeding 3 feet (900 mm). The deadman in the horizontal timber wall are timbers embedded in the soil behind the wall and connected to it with timbers inserted into the wall at right angles. The timbers, which should be pressure treated with a wood preservative, are held together with very large spikes or with steel reinforcing bars driven into drilled holes. The crushed-stone drainage trench behind each wall is important as a means of relieving water pressure against the wall to prevent wall failure. With proper engineering design, any of these types of construction can also be used for taller retaining walls.
Keywords: construction, foundations, foundation, drawing, stone gravity wall, vertical timber cantilevered wall, horizontal timber wall with deadmen. Submitted by Michael Cadwell for ARCH 626.
Allen, E. & Iano, J. (2004). Fundamentals of Building Construction: Materials and Methods (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p.55.