"Croesus was the fith and most famous ruler after Gyges to govern Sardis prior to its capture by the Persians in 546 B.C.E. It then became the western terminus of the Royal Road which began at Susa, making it an especially symbolic destination fo Alexander, who took it in 334 B.C.E. It subsequently came under Seleucid, and finally Pergamene influence before being ceded to the Romans. the gold-bearing Pactolus river was the source of Croesus' fabled wealth, which also made the city one of the most influential in Asia Minor."
--Steele, J. (1992). Hellenistic Architecture in Asia Minor. Academy, Britain.