A study focusing on the evaluative image of the city was executed by Kazunori Hanyu and his students in Japan (1993). Observers judged one ward cluster as unpleasant, another as pleasant, one as static, another as arousing, another as moderately arousing, and one as exciting. None of the wards received a distressing rating, possibly because of the lower crime and fear of crime rate in Japan. (Nasar, 1998: pp. 110-117)
Nasar, J. L. (1998). The Evaluative Image of the City. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE public.