Villa Lante, Bagnaia, Italy

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"The garden uses an axial path, a procession up (or down) a hill, and the recurrence of fountains to develop an allegory about culture versus nature. Procession along the strong central axis provides a very different narrative depending on your direction of travel." --Gargus, J. (1994). Ideas of Order: A Formal Approach to Architecture. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. p.186. The Fountain of the River Gods collects water from the descending Water Chain, located along the central axis of Villa Lante. As the water leaves the chain, it flows through the claws of a large crawfish and symbolically becomes the Tiber and Arno Rivers where allegorical statues of Pomona and Flora represent the fertility of the land. The manipulation of water at Villa Lante symbolizes man's power over nature and the necessary control of water for human welfare. Keywords: Italy, Viterbo, Bagnaia, hydraulic structures, planned landscapes, landscapes (environments), gardens, outdoor spaces, sculpture, site and landscaped elements, water features.
16th Century (1500 - 1599 CE)
Rogers, E.B. (2001). Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History. New York: Harry N. Adams, Incorporated.